5) Research and technology. One large (and growing) branch of surgery not yet mentioned is laparoscopy. For whatever reason, urologists are on the leading edge in laparoscopic surgery. It is now considered standard of care to perform donor nephrectomies laparoscopically, and innovations with laparoscopic prostatectomies and cystectomies are ongoing. In addition, urologists are embracing robotics surgery. At some hospitals, robotic nephrectomies are already being performed. Thus, urologists have taken a leading role in advancing surgical technology--something anyone technically inclined should consider. In a similar vein, there is a booming المزدهر interest in urologic research. Many urologists feel their field has missed the boat as far as evidenced based medicine goes, as there have not been enough well designed studies to evaluate treatment regimens for common diseases. The upside of this is that there is a tremendous amount of research to be done, both clinical and lab-based, and many residency programs are looking for people interested in furthering this research.