Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of adult malignancies and close to 90% of all renal neoplasms (Jemal, Siegel, Xu, & Ward, 2010). Renal cell carcinomas, by definition, are tumors that originate in the renal cortex. These tumors are often asymptomatic, have diverse clinical manifestations, and can be associated with hereditary syndromes. Surgery is the treatment of choice for localized RCC. In recent years, there has been a shift from radical nephrectomy toward more nephron-sparing approaches. RCC still remains a predominantly surgical disease because RCCs are frequently characterized as tumors that are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. However, advances in the treatment of metastatic RCC have evolved, primarily with biologic response modifiers.
- Explain the likely causes for the rise in incidence of renal cell carcinoma in the United States.
- Describe the classification, grading, and staging systems of renal cell carcinoma.
- Discuss treatment modalities for patients with renal cell carcinoma.