Gene expression analysis of bladder-speciﬁc mRNA markers in blood samples by preampliﬁcation RT-qPCR is different among the various tumor risk groups of patients with UCC but does not predict the development of metastases. We have also found that this method is not suitable for monitoring hematogenous UCC dissemination in patients who have undergone cystectomy to predict the UCC outcome. The clinical utility of these ﬁndings should be evaluated further.
UROLOGY 79: 240.e9 –240.e15, 2012. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.