Saturday, January 28, 2012

How to write references in your thesis or paper? (Citing and Referencing)


Citing and referencing






All of our work (as papers or texts) is based on others work, the ones with previous expertise in the field because their work is established and evidence based.
Therefore we have to acknowledge our sources to validate our work and avoid plagiarism (Using ideas, plots, text and other intellectual property developed by someone else while claiming it is your original work). 








we can acknowledge our sources by 2 steps:

1-Citation: mentioning the source in the text (in brief).

2- Referencing: mentioning the source in details in reference list (Bibliography) at end of the text. 


when not to cite?
when the information copied is a common knowledge (not the case in most of our texts).


Sources (Publications)
sources (publications) used as reference may be:
  1. Book
  2. Book chapter
  3. Journal article
  4. Web site
Referencing styles


Many styles can be used for referencing
styles of referencing can be classified into:
  1. Author-date styles: used in medicine and others e.g, Harvard style 
  2. Numbering styles: used in medicine and others e.g, Vancouver style
  3. Footnote styles: used in arts and law

The most used are, the harvard style and  Vancouver style.


Harvard style of referencing
Harvard is an author-date style of referencing widely used in academic publications (thesis and essays).

Harvard style consists of:
  • citations in the text, using author name and year.
  • a reference list at the end of your text (full details).
Citation in In Harvard referencing style
different situations include:

Single author: name (only family name) and year are mentioned
Example:
Prevalence increases with age, and renal cysts can be found in more than 50% of patients older than 50 years (Kissane, 1976 ).

Single author with 2 publications in different years: no problem here
 Example:
Tricyclic antidepressants, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, have been shown to be clinically effective in reducing the level of detrusor overactivity under specific conditions (Wein, 1998).
Consistent with my philosophy and prior attempts to make the understanding, evaluation, and management of voiding dysfunction as logical and simple as possible, a functional and practical approach is favored (Wein, 2002).

Single author with 2 publications in same year: will be named a, b, c, .........
Example:
However, more recent data suggest that this information applies primarily to the more common conventional and chromophilic variants of RCC, whereas most other histologic subtypes of RCC appear to be derived from the more distal elements of the nephron ( Pantuck, 2001a).
RCC is primarily a disease of the elderly patient, with typical presentation in the sixth and seventh decades of life ( Pantuck, 2001b).

2 Authors: both mentioned with and inbetween then the year mentioned as usual.
 Example:
Several radiographic modalities are currently available for detection and evaluation of renal masses, each with relative strengths and weaknesses ( Israel and Bosniak, 2003a ).

N.B. of course the same principles of 2 publications apply to 2, 3 or more authors

3 or more authors: first author mentioned then et al, (means: and others)
Example:
In general, any renal mass that enhances with intravenous administration of contrast material on CT scanning by more than 15 Hounsfield units (HU) should be considered a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) until proved otherwise (Hartman et al, 2004).

N.B. of course the same principles of 2 publications apply to 2, 3 or more authors

2 publications with same piece of information: both mentioned to further establish the data
Example:
Several radiographic modalities are currently available for detection and evaluation of renal masses, each with relative strengths and weaknesses (Davidson et al, 1997 ; Israel and Bosniak, 2003a ; Zagoria, 2000). 
Referencing in Harvard referencing style
Books
Book author(s) or editor(s) family name,   followed by initials  
Title of the work,                    followed by a full stop. (first word of the title begins with a capital letter).  
Edition (if not the first),            followed by a full stop. 
Volume (if multivolume)           followed by a colon

Place of publication,                followed by a colon 
Publisher,                                followed by a semi-colon 

Year of publication,                 followed by a colon.
Pages.   p. (if single) pp. (if range) followed by full stop.    

Simplified format:
AUTHOR(S)/EDITOR(S), (eds). Book title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Pages.



Example:
Feinberg, T.E. and Farah, M.J. (eds) Behavioural neurology and neuropsychology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill: 1997. 


N.B. remove (eds) if authors other than editors

Chapter of book
Chapter author(s) or editor(s)  family name,   followed by initials  
Chapter Title                           followed by a full stop. 
In: 
Book author or editor family name,   followed by initials  
Title of the work,                    followed by a full stop. (first word of the title begins with a capital letter).  
Edition (if not the first),            followed by a full stop. 
Volume (if multivolume)           followed by a colon
Place of publication,                followed by a colon 
Publisher,                                followed by a semi-colon 
Year of publication,                 followed by a colon.
Pages.   p. (if single) pp. (if range) followed by full stop.    

Simplified format:
AUTHOR(S). Chapter title. In: AUTHOR(S)/EDITOR(S), ed(s). Book title. Edition.
Place of publication: Publisher, Year, Pages.

Example:
D'Amico AV, et al. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In AJ Wein et al., eds., Campbell-Walsh Urology, 9th ed., vol. 3, pp. 3006-3031. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

Ashken MH. Urinary cecal reservoir.   In: King LR, Stone AR, Webster GD, ed. Bladder Reconstruction and Continent Urinary Diversion,  Chicago: Year Book; 1987:238-251.


Journals
Article author(s) or editor(s) family name,   followed by initials  
Title of article ,                             followed by a full stop. (first word of the title begins with a capital letter).  
Title of journal (abbreviated),        followed by a full stop. (Capitals are used for Main Words) 
Year of publication followed by month/date,      followed by semi-colon 
Volume number, and part number in brackets,   followed by colon 
Pagination i.e. the numbers of the first and last pages on which the article appears




Simplified format:
AUTHOR(S). Title of article. Title of journal, Vol. no. (Part no.), Pages.


N.B. another format:  Vol. no. (Part no./Issue/Month)



Example


Naglie G, Radomski SB, Brymer C, et al: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of nimodipine in older persons with detrusor instability and urge incontinence.  J Urol  2002; 167(pt 1):586-590.


Annas, GJ. New drugs for acute respiratory distress syndrome. NEJM. 1997; 337: 435-39. 



N.B.  435-39. means that article occupies from page 435 to 439 in the journal volume.



Web Pages, e­mails and CD­Roms

Document author 
Title of document
[Type of resource] e.g. CD­ROM, e­mail, WWW
Organisation responsible (optional).

Available from: web address
[accessed: date]. 



Simplified format:
AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of document [Type of resource, e.g. CD­ROM, e­mail, WWW]
Organisation responsible (optional). Available from: web address [Date accessed].




Example
UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD LIBRARY (2001) Citing electronic sources of  information [WWW] University of Sheffield. Available from: http://www.shef.ac.uk/library/libdocs/hsl­dvc1.pdf [Accessed 23/02/07].

N.B.

in citation, 3 or more authors, write first one then et al,
in references, more than 3 authors, write first 3 then et al,



Mixed Example for Harvard style
Text (Citation):
Several radiographic modalities are currently available for detection and evaluation of renal masses, each with relative strengths and weaknesses ( Davidson et al, 1997 ; Israel and Bosniak, 2003a ; Zagoria, 2000). 
In general, any renal mass that enhances with intravenous administration of contrast material on CT scanning by more than 15 Hounsfield units (HU) should be considered a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) until proved otherwise (Hartman et al, 2004).
These isotope studies demonstrate an area of increased density if the mass is a pseudotumor and an area of decreased density if the mass is a cyst or solid tumor ( Israel and Bosniak, 2003b).

Reference list (listed alphabetically)
Davidson AJ, Hayes WS, Hartman DS, et al: Renal oncocytoma and carcinoma: Failure of differentiation with CT imaging.  Radiology  1993; 183:693-696.
Davidson AJ, Choyke PL, Hartman DS, Davis CJ: Renal medullary carcinoma associated with sickle cell trait: Radiologic findings.  Radiology  1995; 195:83-85.
Davidson AJ, Hartman DS, Choyke PL, et al: Radiologic assessment of renal masses: Implications for patient care.  Radiology  1997; 202:297-305.
Hartman CS, Choyke PL, Hartman MS: A practical approach to the cystic renal mass.  Radiographics  2004; 24:S101-S115.
Israel GM, Bosniak MA: Renal imaging for diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma.  Urol Clin North Am  2003a; 30:499-514. 
Israel GM, Bosniak MA: Follow-up CT of moderately complex cystic lesions of the kidney (Bosniak category IIF).  AJR Am J Roentgenol  2003b; 181:627-633.
Zagoria RJ: Imaging of small renal masses: A medical success story.  AJR Am J Roentgenol  2000; 175:945-955.


Vancouver style of referencing
Vancouver is a numbered referencing style commonly used in medicine and science
Vancouver style consists of: 
  • citations in the text, using numbers
  • a numbered reference list at the end of the document
It follows rules established by the International committee of Medical Journal Editors, now maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. It is also knows as Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals.


Citing in vancouver referencing style
it is quiet easy, you just write a number.
Example:
In general, any renal mass that enhances with intravenous administration of contrast material on CT scanning by more than 15 Hounsfield units (HU) should be considered a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) until proved otherwise (4).
These isotope studies demonstrate an area of increased density if the mass is a pseudotumor and an area of decreased density if the mass is a cyst or solid tumor (5).

Referencing in Vancouver referencing style
as in Harvard style



Mixed Example for Vancouver style
Text (Citation):
Several radiographic modalities are currently available for detection and evaluation of renal masses, each with relative strengths and weaknesses (1), (2), (3).
In general, any renal mass that enhances with intravenous administration of contrast material on CT scanning by more than 15 Hounsfield units (HU) should be considered a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) until proved otherwise (4).
These isotope studies demonstrate an area of increased density if the mass is a pseudotumor and an area of decreased density if the mass is a cyst or solid tumor (5).
Reference list: (listed according to time of mentioning reference in text, not alphabetical)
(1) Davidson AJ, Hartman DS, Choyke PL, et al: Radiologic assessment of renal masses: Implications for patient care.  Radiology  1997; 202:297-305.





(2) Israel GM, Bosniak MA: Renal imaging for diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma.  Urol Clin North Am  2003a; 30:499-514. 
(3) Zagoria RJ: Imaging of small renal masses: A medical success story.  AJR Am J Roentgenol  2000; 175:945-955.





(4) Hartman CS, Choyke PL, Hartman MS: A practical approach to the cystic renal mass.  Radiographics  2004; 24:S101-S115.
(5) Israel GM, Bosniak MA: Follow-up CT of moderately complex cystic lesions of the kidney (Bosniak category IIF).  AJR Am J Roentgenol  2003b; 181:627-633.


Commonly used abbreviations:
c. = circa (about, approximately)
ch. = Chapter
ed. = edition
et al.. = and others
fig; figs = figure(s)
ill ills = illustrator(s)
p. = page(s)
p. = single page, e.g. p.134
pp. = page range, e.g. pp. 115-117 or 115-17
para paras = paragraph(s)
pt pts = part(s)
rev = revised
suppl = Supplement







Reply:

3 Comments:

Dr. Sabbagh said...

Thanx alot ya Doctor Mohammad,, Very Very Usefull..

Dr. Sabbagh said...

according to this document i'll re-adjust all references in my essay as i used to write the year of publication in the end of the reference, in addition to some faults in the puctuation marks.. like this:

e.g.: Haber G.P, Gill I.S. : Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy - contemporary technique and outcomes. European Urology; 49: 660–665, 2006.

proofreading help Hong Kong said...

At last a very useful info that I can use for my thesis ! Thank you for sharing.

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