Thursday, January 12, 2012

Anatomy- Adrenal

first comes first, starting by anatomy...

ADRENALS

Gross Appearance
Anatomy
Bilateral Yellow gland that Cap Each kidney   
enclosed within Gerota's (perirenal) fascia.
weighs = 5 gm
right adrenal is triangular in shape;
left adrenal is rounded and crescentic.
composed of a  1- cortex (outer), (main bulk),controlled by the pituitary gland (mesoderm)
2- medulla (inner) chromaffin cells (derived from neural crest ectoderm).
Relations
RA lies between the liver and IVC.
LA lies close to the aorta
lower surface is covered by pancreas;
superiorly and laterally related to the spleen.
Histology
·         Cortex: peripheral & composed of 3 layers: GFR
Ø  zona glomerulosa (outer), secretes aldosterone
Ø  zona fasciculata (middle), secretes glucocorticoids
Ø  zona reticularis (inner), secretes sex hormones
·         Medulla: central & composed of chromaffin cells (polyhedral cells containing eosinophilic granular cytoplasm) + ganglion and small round cells.
Blood Supply
A. Arterial
Each adrenal receives 3 arteries (divide to 50 small branches):
·         Sup. Suprarenal a.: from the inferior phrenic artery,
·         middle Suprarenal a.: from the aorta,
·         Inf. Suprarenal a.: from the renal artery.
B. Venous
·         Rt suprarenal v. into the vena cava (very short vein);
·         Lt suprsrenal v. into left renal vein.
Nerve supply (preganglionic sympathetic)
sympathetic: greater splanchnic n., celiac plexus, aortorenal plexus (to Medulla only)
Lymphatics
lumbar (Lat. Aortic) L.N. (lymphatic vessels accompany suprarenal vein).

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